Wednesday, November 16, 2011

On the Road to Recovery?

After more than three months of getting a negative standing on my overall investment portfolio at the Philippines stock market (it went down to -13%), at last, my overall investment portfolio is now on its positive standing ... not that big margin though but at least if ever I sell all my positions today, I would be gaining on my investment.

Is this the start of stock market recovery?  Well, let's wait and see.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

My Personal Stock Trading Goals

If we want to succeed in anything that we do, we need to set our goals so we can plan our actions to reach that goal.  It's just plain and simple ... we won’t know what to do if we don’t know what we want.

Same thing with stock trading, in order for us to develop an effective trading strategy, we need to set our goals first and it should be measurable and simple.  It is easier to develop a trading strategy if our goals are measurable and simple.

At first I don’t have measurable goals in my trading, all I want is to earn but later on I developed my trading goals which are measurable and simple.  Here are the two trading goals which I set:

a.       To trade stocks without losing any centavo in any transaction ... this may raise the eyebrows of a lot of stock traders out there but I have set it as my goal and so far I have satisfied this goal in all my transactions.

b.      To make a profit of 400 pesos minimum in any trade.  

Your goal may be different from mine but what is important is you have set your goal and you are happy with it.  From there you can develop the trading strategy that will help you achieve your trading goals.

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

The Convenience of Off-hours Order

At present, trading hours at the Philippines Stock Market is from 9:30 AM to 12:10 PM and most of the time during this hours I'm busy with the household chores and sometimes I have to attend to some important matters away from home so I can't really attend to my on-line trading at the stock market.  When I was still working, our company has blocked the website for stock trading so there's really no way I can check on my portfolio.

Good thing, my broker Citiseconline has a feature wherein I can make orders even if the market is already closed.  This is what they call "Off-hours Order" or "After Trade Orders".  The orders (buy or sell) entered using off-hours order will be queued on the next trading day and once the price you set will be matched then a transaction will be made and recorded.

This off-hours order is really helpful for those who can't go on-line during trading hours so check on your on-line stock broker if they have this feature.  For Citiseconline clients, you can access this "Off-hours Order" by logging in to your account then click on your "Trade/Portfolio" then click "Off-hours Order".  A preview order button will be opened so just fill it out and enter your password to complete the order.  You can check the orders you have entered on "Off-hours Order" by clicking on the "Off-hours View/Cancel" button.

Happy investing/trading everyone.

Sunday, September 4, 2011

How to Open a Citiseconline Account

If you are decided to invest/trade in Philippines Stock Market, it is now time to open an account with a stock broker.  One of the top stock brokers in the market today is Citiseconline and since I started investing/trading in the Philippines Stock Market, I had tapped their services and so far, I’m happy with them.

Opening an account with Citiseconline is easy.  Just print and fill-out the forms which are available in their website and submit it to their customer service center together with a copy of any government issued IDs at 2403-B, East Tower, Philippine Stock Exchange Center, Exchange Road, Ortigas Center, Pasig City, Metro Manila, Philippines.  You may let a representative submit the documents on your behalf, just submit any billing or bank statements.

After you have submitted the documents, just wait for the approval of your account which takes from one to two days.  A Citiseconline representative will contact you and you will be given your user ID and your initial password ... you can already deposit your initial fund which is a minimum of 25,000 pesos for regular accounts at any BPI, BDO and Metrobank branches.  Once your fund is already credited to your account (you can check this by logging in to Citiseconline website using your user ID and password), you can now start trading/investing in the stock market.

Happy investing/trading everyone.

Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Trading in the Stock Market

Trading in the stock market is just like buying and selling.  You buy stocks when the price is low and sell it when you already realize the profit you have targetted from it. There is no physical products involved, just the computer, internet connection and the broker's trading platform (this is applicable for on-line trading).

I'm not a professional stock trader who uses graphs and indicators to enter or exit a certain trade but I have developed my own strategy and so far, I'm earning decently from my trades although I don't earn daily but overall, at the end of the year, I am able to profit 30% to 40% of my capital.  Doesn't sound much for professional traders but for a simple mother who wants to augment the family's income, it's already a big thing for me ... payment for insurance premiums and other family expenditures which I don't need to get from my husband's pay check.

Aside from the earnings that I get from stock trading, I also enjoy exercising my skills on planning and decision making in making my trades, it just makes my mind working and I love it.

What is important in stock trading is that you have your plan and you have the fund so you can execute your plan but always remember this, trade only the extra money that you have ... not the money for your family's monthly budget, not the money for emergency purposes and most of all not the money that you have borrowed. 

Sunday, August 28, 2011

What is Citiseconline's Easy Investment Program (EIP)?

Citiseconline’s EIP or Easy Investment Program was designed to help ordinary citizens to invest in the Philippines Stock Market the simple and convenient way.  The basic principle of this program is based on peso-cost averaging which is a time tested strategy to build personal wealth by investing a fixed amount of money in a good quality company in regular intervals over a period of time

This strategy works best for a long term investment and the good thing about this is that you don’t have to time the market.   The idea is that whenever the stock price of a certain good quality increases we purchase less shares and whenever the price decreases, we purchase more shares so we don't have to time the market just follow your your schedule on buying your shares.  In the long run, the average cost per share will be lesser than the actual price per share.

The following are the features of Citiseconline’s EIP:

a.       Recommends premium quality companies which are suitable for a long term investment.  How did they arrive with this list?  Citiseconline has a group of fundamental analysts who are expert in studying all these listed companies in the stock exchange.  They make a thorough study of a certain company before they recommend it to the list of premium quality stocks.  I don’t have the capability of studying these companies so I just rely on their recommendations.

b.      On-line monitoring of your EIP portfolio.  With Citiseconline you can always monitor your stock positions anytime, anywhere you are as long as you have an internet access.  Personally, I still make my own spreadsheet to monitor my stock positions, then I compare it with citiseconline’s report.  So far, I haven’t found any discrepancy yet aside from small centavo difference because of the rounding off system.

c.       Citiseconline EIP reminds clients of their scheduled EIP order.  When you register for Citiseconline EIP, you will be required to input how much you are going to invest in a certain quality company they recommend, for a regular interval (say weekly, monthly or quarterly) at a certain period of time.  Based from your input, they will remind you two days before your scheduled EIP purchase through e-mail.

Remember that Citiseconline’s EIP will not automatically buy your stocks for you.  You have to set your order at your scheduled date, just don’t forget to check your account for an available fund.

This program is still covered with the board lot rule so don’t expect that if you allot 5,000 pesos monthly for a certain company, you can buy a 5,000 pesos worth of shares.  The amount will vary depending on the prices of stocks at the time of your scheduled order so what I'm doing is that I fix my EIP order to the number of shares which is in accordance to the board lot rule and to my budget. 

I registered for an EIP order for ALI (Ayala Land, Inc.) every 15th of the month at a 5,000 pesos investment.  With this 5,000 budget, I can buy approximately 300 shares of ALI each month. For several months now, ALI's price fluctuates from 15 pesos to 17 pesos per share, sometimes I buy ALI shares for only 15 pesos per share (approximately 4,550 pesos for 300 shares) and there are also times when I buy it at 17 pesos per share (approximately 5,200 pesos for 300 shares). 

So for those of you who want to invest for a long term in the stock market the easy and convenient way, you can always try this Easy Investment Program of Citiseconline.  Please visit their website to know more about this program.

Saturday, August 20, 2011

Board Lot and Odd Lot

Board lot is the minimum size a stock can be traded and it is controlled by the stock price.  If a stock has a board lot of 100 shares, that means that you can buy or sell that stock for a minimum of 100 shares and in the scale of 100 thereafter.  With this board lot, you can trade it at 100, 200, 300 and so on and so forth.

Odd lot on the other hand is a number of stock shares not wholly divisible by a minimum board lot.  For example the minimum board lot for EDC (Energy Development Corporation) is 100 shares.  If you have 150 shares then 50 shares is considered as odd lot.  

Now, you may be wondering, if stocks are traded by board lot then why is there such a thing as odd lot.  Well, this odd lot usually happens when a company declares a stock dividend or stock rights.  For example you have at present 300 shares of EDC then they declare a 25 % stock dividend, this means you will receive additional 75 shares.  The additional 75 shares is considered an odd lot since it is below the minimum board lot which is 100 shares.  

This odd lot shares can only be traded at Odd Lot Boards but are not easy to trade and are usually traded at a discounted price.

You may minimize getting this odd lot shares by buying additional shares whenever a company declares a stock dividend.  As for our example above, once you learned that EDC will give out a 25% stock dividend, you may buy additional 100 shares so you will get a total of 400 shares.  This 400 shares will give you an additional 100 shares dividend which is already equivalent to the minimum board lot.

I have an odd lot shares for BPI last year when they declared a stock offering.  I did not try to sell it so it’s just there in my account, anyway it still earns interest whenever the company declares a cash dividend so I’ll just leave it there.

Below is a table of board lot for Philippines Stock Market:

Stock Price Range
Board Lot

I hope you learned something from this post.

Happy investing everyone.

Friday, August 12, 2011

Crazy Week for the Stock Market

Wow, it’s been a crazy week for the stock market.  At the beginning of the week, all stocks were going down and my portfolio was down by almost 5%.  Wednesday came and the stock market rebounded but still it’s lower than what it was last week and my portfolio is still down by 3%.    

Anyway, I had been through this before.  The worst that I experienced was a 20% down on my portfolio and that happened first half of 2009 when the stock market was just starting to recover from the 2008 financial crisis.  I was only new to the Philippines Stock Market then but it didn’t scare me, my portfolio was made up of big companies so I was so confident that my investment will recover so I just hold on with all my investments, not selling anything.  True to my expectations, in a few weeks time, my portfolio was up.

This craziness that’s happening in the stock market today will also have its end and if you’re tough enough to hold on and even buy stocks of companies that are way down below their valued price, we are on the same side.  It’s bargain hunting week at the stock market.

Good luck everyone.

Wednesday, August 10, 2011

How to Withdraw Funds from Citiseconline

Withdrawing funds from Citiseconline is as easy as depositing fund for your account, just make sure that the fund you are withdrawing is a stand-by fund in your account for three days.

Ever since I opened my account at citiseconline, this is the first time that I tried to withdraw part of my funds from them.  I just want to make sure that withdrawing my funds from them don’t have a lot of hassle.  My officemate once asked me if it’s not hard to withdraw your money from citiseconline so I have to try so we will know.

To withdraw funds from your account, just fill-out the “Request for Withdrawal of Funds” form which can be downloaded from Citiseconline’s website and fax it to them (their fax and telephone numbers are written on the withdrawal form).  Make sure to call and verify if they have received the fax you sent.  If you have sent your request before eleven o’clock in the morning, they can process your request within the day and release the cleared fund the next day.

You have the option of receiving your withdrawn amount through check and pick it up at their office or you can request them to deposit it in your bank account.   Take note of the check 3-day clearing requirement if you request to deposit your fund at banks other than Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), Banco de Oro (BDO) and Metrobank.  Don’t worry, there’s no charge whatever means you opt your fund will be given to you.

In my case, I requested Citiseconline to deposit my withdrawn amount to my bank account and when I checked my account the following day after I faxed the request for withdrawal, the money was already credited on my account.  Isn’t it great?  Thank you Citiseconline. 

Saturday, August 6, 2011

PLDT Announces Cash Dividend Distribution

Philippine Long Distance Company with a stock code TEL in the Philippine Stock Exchange announces the distribution of 78 pesos per share cash dividend to all its stockholders.  The Ex-Date is August 24, 2011 and it is payable on September 27, 2011.

The Ex-date is August 24 which means that we still have the chance until August 23 to buy PLDT stocks if we want to be entitled of the cash dividend.  As of today PLDT's stock price is 2410 pesos per share.  No wonder PLDT stocks price managed to increase despite the losses of other companies listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange.

Happy investing everyone.

Friday, August 5, 2011

Another Recession?

Another selling frenzy swept the Wall Street for the past weeks and yesterday the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell more than 500 points, the 9th steepest decline ever according to analysts.  See story here.

I don't really understand all this issues in the U.S. economy that gives fear to its investors and leads to the selling frenzy at the stock market but definitely all stock exchanges outside the U.S. will be affected. 

This will be a wait and see day for me at the Philippine Stock Market but there's nothing to worry, stock market always have it's highs and lows and as long as you don't panic and sell all your losing positions, rest assured that the market will always bounce back, higher than the previous high.  This is the reason why it is advisable that the money we put in the stock market are extra money that we won't need for our everyday and emergency funds.

Happy investing everyone.

Tuesday, August 2, 2011

Stock Trading Fees

Just like in any market there are fees a trader has to pay for every executed transaction in the stock market.  Whenever you buy or sell stocks, there are certain charges which are automatically deducted from your account such as stock broker’s commission, securities fees and taxes.

Stock broker’s commission varies so it is better to check with your stock broker how much they charge.

In my case, my stock broker is Citiseconline and they charge 0.25% of the gross trade amount for on-line transactions and 0.50% for a telephone transaction or a minimum of 20 pesos per transaction if the calculated commission is 20 pesos or below.

Below are the fees collected for every executed transaction (considering an on-line transaction with citiseconline as broker):

1.       Buying
a.       Stock broker’s commission                   =   0.25 % of the gross trade amount
b.      VAT on Stock broker’s commission     = 12 %
c.       PSE transaction Fee                             =   0.005 % of the gross trade amount
d.      Securities Clearing Corporation
of the Phils. fee (SCCP fee)                =  0.01 % of the gross trade amount

2.       Selling

a.       Stock broker’s commission                =  0.25 % of the gross trade amount
b.      VAT on Stock broker’s commission  = 12 %
c.       PSE transaction Fee                            = 0.005 % of the gross trade amount
d.      Securities Clearing Corporation
of the Phils. fee (SCCP fee)                = 0.01 % of the gross trade amount
e.        Sales Tax                                            = 0.005% of the gross trade amount

Here’s a transaction example:

      Buying 100 shares of BPI stock at a price of 59/share:

a.       Commission      = 0.0025 x 59 x 100 =  14.75   = 20  (minimum commission charge)
b.      VAT                  = 20 x 0.12                              =   2.40
c.       PSE                   = 0.00005 x 59 x 100              =   0.30
d.      SCCP Fee         =  0.0001 x 59 x 100                =   0.60
                                                                                23.30 (total charges)

 Total amount to be paid = (59*100) + 23.30    =  5,923.30
       Selling 100 shares of BPI stock at a price of 61/share:
a.       Commission      = 0.0025 x 61 x 100 =  15.25          = 20  (minimum commission charge)
b.      VAT                  = 20 x 0.12                                     =   2.40
c.       PSE                   = 0.00005 x 61 x 100                     =   0.31
d.      SCCP Fee         =  0.0001 x 61 x 100                       =   0.61
e.       Sales tax           =  0.00005 x 61 x 100                      =   0.31
                                                                                      23.63 (total charges)

 Total amount to be received = (61x100) – 23.63     =  6,076.37

You should be aware of these charges so you can calculate at what price you are going to sell your stocks in order for you to get a certain profit.

Saturday, July 30, 2011

What is an Ex-Date or Ex-Div Date

Ex-Date or Ex-Div Date is always encountered once a listed company declares to give out dividends to stockholders either in the form of cash or stocks.

Actually there are three dates mentioned in the dividend announcements of companies.  It is the ex-date or ex-div date, record date and the payment date but the most important date that should be watched out is the ex-date or ex-div date.

The ex-date or ex-div date is the cut-off date where all stockholders who hold a share of stocks as of the previous day is entitled for a share in the dividend allocation.

For example, if a company declares to give out dividends and the ex-date or ex-div date specified is August 3, all stockholders holding a stock share until August 2 will be entitled to the dividend payment.

Mostly the dividend declaration announcement is being done one or two weeks before the ex-date, that gives time for investors to buy the stocks in order to be entitled for a dividend.  The stock price during this period usually goes up.

If you want, you can sell your stock shares the day after the ex-date or ex-div date … you will still be entitled for the dividend but usually, the stock’s price drops down during this period.

Sunday, July 24, 2011

Investing vs. Trading

When I first started participating in the Philippine Stock Market years ago, I usually hear and read about the term investing and trading.  Then there comes the investor and the trader.  Are they the same?
Well after a few years of participating in the stock market, I learned that people who are investing and/or trading in the stock market have the same goal ... that is, to build up wealth.  Of course this is the number one reason why we participate in the stock market, we believe that there is an opportunity to grow our wealth here.  The only difference between investing and trading is the method used in building up that wealth and this is where time and risk is involved.

Investing in stocks of a certain company is holding on to that stock for an indefinite time (mostly years) believing that the company have a great potential to grow and that we, as investors are riding with their growth.  A thorough study of the underlying factors which affect the company's business and future expansions is a must here.  This sounds complicated but with the help of experts it will be easier.  This is where some stock brokers is a big help.  Some stock brokers just like citiseconline gives information to clients as to what companies are worth investing in.  Citiseconline even have this program called Easy Investment Program or EIP which makes use of cost averaging technique which is suitable for new and long term investors.
Trading on the other hand is attempting to accelerate the pace of building up wealth by engaging in short term opportunities.  Here, market timing is required.  When to buy or when to sell is very important to maximize profits in trading.  Technical analysts are expert in this, they study the movements of market prices and forecast the future price trend using different charting tools. Again, some stock brokers are giving tips to clients as to when to buy or sell their stocks.

Whatever methods you will use in building your wealth, there is always a risk of losing money especially in trading, so in order to minimize our loss, an effective risk management plan should be developed.  Also remember that informations or tips coming from stock brokers are not perfect so wise judgement should be done.

In my case, I do both investing and trading.  In choosing the companies where to invest or trade, I rely on the informations my stock broker provides but when it comes to the timing of buying and selling, I developed my own trading strategy which goes hand in hand with my risk management plan.  So far, it's effective and I'm happy with the earnings I made from the stock market.

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Extended Trading Hours at Philippine Stock Exchange

At present, the Philippine Stock Exchange trading hours is from 9:30 AM to 12:10 PM.  That is only 2 hours and 40 minutes of trading but starting October 1, 2011, longer trading hours will take effect. 

The Philippine Stock Exchange Board of Directors approved the extension of the longer market trading hours and the implementation will come in two phases.

The first phase is the extension of the morning trading hours which will take effect on October 1, 2011.  The trading hours will be from 9:30 AM to 1:00 PM.  The second phase will take effect on January next year which will introduce the afternoon trading hours which will start from 1:30 PM to 3:30 PM.  All in all, the trading hours starting January next year will be 5 hours and 30 minutes.

I don’t really know what will be the effect of this extended trading hours to investors/traders but just the same, I welcome this change PSE is implementing in their system.

Sunday, June 5, 2011

How to Start Investing/Trading in the Stock Market

I have talked to some friends who have been interested in investing in the stock market for a long time it's just that, they don’t know how to start.  Well, I told them, if you’re really serious in getting involved with the stock market, have the extra money to invest or trade and you are willing to take the risks (which can actually be managed), getting started is just simple.

The only thing you have to do is to open an account with a stock broker.  It is the only way anyone can transact business with the stock exchange.

There are a lot of licensed stock brokers in the Philippine Stock Exchange, you can visit the PSE website and click on the trading participants to get the complete list.  The list is really long that if you’re new in the stock market, it would be a headache to choose which stock broker you are going to transact to so this is where information from friends and some research can help.

In my case, I chose the stock broker recommended by Bro. Bo of Truly Rich Club which is the Citiseconline.  I'd been reading books, articles and newsletters written by Bro. Bo, in fact, it is from his writings that I learned about the stock market so it's just natural for me to follow his recommendations.  But of course, before I opened my account with Citiseconline, I did my own research.  I browsed their website and attended the free seminars they offered and so far, two years after opening an account with them, I’m satisfied with their services.

Once you have opened an account with a stock broker, you can now buy your first shares of stocks of any listed company you want to.

Happy investing everyone.

Monday, May 30, 2011

How Money Grows in the Stock Market

People are investing in the stock market with the goal of making their money grow but how does our money grow in the stock market?

It’s been two years since I started investing/trading in the stock market and so far, I have earned through the following:

a.       Capital appreciation - this happens when the price of stocks I bought appreciates.  For example, I have bought 1000 shares of ALI (Ayala Land, Inc.) stocks at a price of 15 pesos per share and after some time the price appreciates to 16 pesos per share.  At that instant my capital increased by more or less 6% and depending on my plan, I may opt to sell my shares so I can already secure my 6% profit or I may wait for the stock to appreciate more for a bigger profit.

b.      Cash Dividend - This is the money given back to the investor as his/her share of distributed profits declared by the company.  As per my experience, most companies where I invest declare cash dividend twice a year.  For example, I have 30 shares of TEL (PLDT) stocks then they declared a cash dividend of 78 pesos per share.  That means I will be getting 2,340 pesos dividend less 10% tax, I will get a net dividend of 2,106 pesos.

c.       Stock Dividend – This is the additional stocks given by the company to its shareholders.  This is usually declared in percent.  For example, If I have 4000 shares of EDC (Energy Development Corporation) stocks and then they declared a 25% stock dividend, I will be having an additional 1000 shares of EDC stocks which I can sell right after the stocks were credited to my account.

d.      Stock Rights Offering – This is a special offering of companies to its existing shareholders wherein the offered share price is lower than its current market price.  This is usually declared in ratio and shareholders are given a timeframe to accept the offer or not.  Yes, a shareholder can opt not to accept the offer but if you have the cash to buy the offered shares, it is much better to accept the offer.  This is seldom offered by companies so it’s an opportunity to grab.  I have experienced this opportunity last year when BPI (Bank of the Philippine Islands) offered a 1:10.555 stock offering.  I have an existing 2200 shares so I was offered 208 (2200/10.555) shares at a price of 32.50.  At that time, BPI trades at 51 pesos/share so it’s just like buying the 208 shares at 36% discount which I sold immediately giving me a more or less 50% profit.

There’s really a lot of opportunity to grow your money in the stock market.  It’s high risk, yes, but you can develop your strategy to counter the risks.

Happy investing/trading everyone.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Why I Started Investing in the Stock Market

 Last 2009 as an effect of the global economic crisis, the bank's interest rate on deposit accounts was reduced tremendously that my little savings deposited on my time deposit account earned a very minimal interest.  Starting from 5% annual interest, it dropped to as low as 2.5% annual interest.  A 20% withholding tax is still to be deducted from the meager earnings I get from my savings.

This situation pushed me to start reading books from financial experts.  I bought books written by Mr. Robert Kiyosaki and Mr. Colayco and registered to Bro. Bo's Truly Rich Club.  Having read the insights of these financial experts, my financial outlook in life changed.  I now understand the value of investing.

There are different investment vehicle available in the market but what really caught my attention is the stock market.  Before, my perception about stock market is that, only the rich with large amount of capital can invest in this market and that it's a very complicated and difficult thing to learn.  But when I started reading articles from Truly Rich Club regarding the stock market, little by little I was enlightened. 

Of course, I did not immediately plunged into investing in the stock market, I did a lot of readings first not only from Bro. Bo's Truly Rich Club but also from other sources.  I visited Philippine Stock Exchange website and monitored the stock's movement of companies I'm interested in.  I also visited CitiSecOnline website, the online stockbroker Bro. Bo recommends and I attended the free seminars they hosted.  In other words, I did a research on stock market's ins and outs (at least the basic ones) before I opened an account at Citisec.

Now, it's more than two years since I started investing/trading in the Philippines Stock market and I'm really happy that I did.  It's high risk, yes, but you can always develop strategies to counter the risks.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

What is a Stock Market

  Some of my friends and officemates learned that I am investing/trading in the stock market.   Others are eager to know and learn about it and so a lot of questions are being raised.   So I thought of blogging the information I learned so every time they ask questions, I will just refer them to this blog.  This may also help others out there who are interested to know more about this market.  

Before anything else, let us start by knowing what a stock market is.  Stock market just like any market is just a place where buying and selling takes place but instead of goods, shares of companies or otherwise known as stocks are being bought and sold here.  Once you have bought a certain share of stocks of a listed company, you are considered a stockholder of the company.

There are three major participants in a stock market, the companies, the stock exchange and the investors

The companies enlist in the stock market so they can source out needed funds for their expansion or debt reduction.

The stock exchange is the intermediary center where companies and potential investors are brought together.   The stock exchange has member stock brokers who are the ones that handle the transactions of investors who want to buy or sell a share from a listed company.  In the Philippines, there is only one stock exchange and that is the Philippines Stock Exchange (PSE).  There are plenty of stock brokers listed in the Philippines Stock Exchange, there are conventional ones and there are the on-line stock brokers.  In order to participate in the stock market, an investor should tap the services of a stock broker.  In my case, I tapped the services of an on-line stock broker and that is the Citiseconline.  For a complete list of stockbrokers or trading participants, you can check the PSE website.

The investors are the people who want to invest their money on companies they feel will be doing well.  This is where, we, the ordinary people belong once we decided to buy shares of companies listed in the stock exchange.

That's all for now and I hope you learn something from this post.

Thank you for passing by and God bless everyone.